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July 10, 2024, 20:35


How big was the supercontinent Columbia?

At peak accumulation, about 1.8 billion years ago, virtually all of Earth's land mass was joined to the supercontinent Columbia creating a surface estimated to have been about 12,900 km from North to South and about 4,800 km in its widest part from West to East.

It is named "Columbia" because scientists posited that the landmass connected what is now eastern India with the Columbia basalts region in what is now North America.

These are two images how this supercontinent could look like ⬆️.

Scientists believe that once sutured together, Columbia was long-lived, existing for more than 500 million years.

The landmass of this supercontinent began to fragment around 1.6 billion years ago because of increased magma plume activity in the Earth's mantle. The breakup was slow and could last from 1.6 to 1.2 billion years ago.

According to researchers, during the time of Columbia, the first plants colonized land in the form of red algae.




July 9, 2024, 16:30


At the time of which supercontinent could the first eukaryotes emerge?

The first eukaryotic organisms could emerge in the world’s oceans at the time of the supercontinent Kenorland, researchers suggest.

This supercontinent was formed in the Neoarchean era.

The name was given in accordance with the Kenoran orogeny – a Proterozoic phase of mountain building affecting the shield area in what is now the Lake Superior region of Canada.

Kenorland formed after the merger of several cratons (including Kaapvaal and Pilbara). The core of it came together around the junction of the Laurentia, Baltica, Western Australia and Kalaharia cratons and most of the Nena craton.

It is believed that Kenorland was only in the law latitudes.

⬆️ This is how this supercontinent could look like, marked continents and cratons being parts of it.

As Kenorland split apart, geologic events and the rise of oxygen-producing, single-celled life created the conditions for the Earth’s first glaciers.




July 8, 2024, 17:15


Where are the largest parts of the supercontinent Ur located today?

The largest parts of the possible supercontinent Ur that survive today are located in India, according to experts. This photo ⬆️ shows rock from eastern India, laid down during the Archean Eon. That rock is on the edge of the Eparchean Unconformity, a zone that shows a major time gap between the rock on one side and the rock on the other (a similar unconformity is found in the basement rock of the Grand Canyon).

The specifics of Ur are also very theoretical, and despite its supercontinent status, the land mass would have been smaller than modern-day Australia. This is how Ur could look like ⬆️.

This supercontinent is called Ur from the German prefix “ur” which means “original”, “fountainhead”.

Scientists believe that Ur formed from the same cratons as Vaalbara. So areas of Ur are also parts of Australia and Africa (Madagascar). But it is not believed that Ur is not a continuation of Vaalbara nor a successor.




July 7, 2024, 16:45


Why was the first supercontinent named Vaalbara?

The earliest and the most theoretical, the supercontinent Vaalbara is postulated to have existed about 3,5 billion years ago, in the early Archean Eon.

The name "Vaalbara" comes from the last four letters in the names of two cratons: the Kaapvaal craton in Southern Africa ⬆️ and the Pilbara craton in Western Australia ⬆️. Paleomagnetic data indicate that about 3.8 billion years ago they were very close to each other.

Containing some of the oldest rock on the surface of the planet, the Kaapvaal and Pilbara cratons also show evidence of four large meteorite impacts between 3.2 and 3.5 billion years ago.

There are three lesser-known cratons in East Antarctica that were probably included in the land mass of Vaalbara.

Geological evidence from the time of Vaalbara indicates that intracrustal melting and recycling must have been a major part of the early days of continent building. The planet must have been hot.



July 9, 2024, 5:06

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"My father always used to say that when you die, if you've got five real friends, then you've had a great life."

➖ @uQuotes ➖



July 5, 2024, 10:30


Why are many children fussy eaters?

A new study demonstrates that at the age of six, children become extra fussy, particularly about the texture of their meal. The researchers asked 485 children between the ages of 5 and 12 to choose between six different foods with and without lumps, seeds and pieces of fruit in them ⬆️. In 76% of the instances, 6-year-olds opted for foods without lumps, the highest preference rate observed across the age groups.

According to researchers, food neophobia – a fear and rejection of eating new or unfamiliar foods – may be the main explanation for such children's eating behavior. Food neophobia is thought to be a protective function against dangerous foods, which seems to be particularly important for 6-7 aged children when they start to become more mobile and independent.

However, the study showed that the "anti-chunk phase" gradually goes the other way in 7–12-year-olds, even if parents often need to offer new foods up to 15 times.




July 3, 2024, 16:50


Which country has the longest bridge?

🥇🇨🇳 China has the longest bridge in the world – the Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge ⬆️.
it has a length 164km (104 miles) and is part of the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway.
It was built at a cost of around $8.5bn ( $52m for each km of the bridge) and can withstand not only seismic activity, but also extreme weather, and even a hit from a 300,000-ton naval vessel.

Today, China can be called a country of longest bridges, as, among 🔟 longest bridges in the world, 6️⃣ are located in continental China.
Besides the Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge, China has
Cangde Grand Bridge (1️⃣1️⃣6️⃣ km, #️⃣3️⃣ in the world)
Tianjin Grand Bridge (1️⃣1️⃣3️⃣ km, #️⃣4️⃣in the world)
Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge (7️⃣9️⃣ km, #️⃣5️⃣in the world)
Beijing Grand Bridge (4️⃣8️⃣ km, #️⃣7️⃣in the world)
Wuhan Metro Bridge (3️⃣7️⃣ km, #️⃣9️⃣in the world)

ℹ️ At last count in 2021, China has a whopping 961,100 road bridges, and that's not including other types of transport.




June 24, 2024, 16:00


How did the dinosaur with the strongest bite look like?

🦖 T.rex (Tyrannosaurus rex) that stomped the Earth from about 68 million to 66 million years ago is a repeat science fiction star for a reason: its bite was ferocious and could deliver up to six tons of pressure or about 50,000-60,000 newtons.

🦖 In museum halls, paleo art, and feature films, T. rex has traditionally been depicted with lipless jaws, banana-size fangs and a sinister grin, as seen in the top two illustrations ⬆️. But now, new evidence suggests these animals had lipped mouths, like modern-day lizards.

🦈🆚🦖 Among prehistoric animals, a possible contender of T. rex for the most powerful bite could be the huge shark Megalodon (Otodus megalodon) that terrorized the seas from 15 million to 3.6 million years ago with a bite force of up to 182,200 newtons.

ℹ️ Nevertheless, for its body size, the mighty T. rex’s bite was far less impressive than the bite of a much smaller modern dinosaur — a tiny Galapagos finch.